Resilience in the Asia Pacific — Asia-Pacific Hub | Reform for Resilience Commission

Resilience within the Asia Pacific — Asia-Pacific Hub | Reform for Resilience Fee

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+ Endnotes

1 See, for instance, Rohit Gupta and Stephanie R Morain. “Moral allocation of future COVID-19 vaccines.” Journal of Medical Ethics 47, no. 3 (2021): 137-141; Rafael Dal-Ré and Victoria Camps. “Who needs to be vaccinated towards COVID-19 first?.” Medicina Clínica (English Version) 156, no. 4 (2021): 177-179.

2 Given the fast-moving knowledge setting, nation vaccination knowledge used on this report has been sourced from Our World in Knowledge, and is replicated within the Appendix.

3 “How a lot will vaccine inequity price?” The Economist Intelligence Unit, August 25, 2021,

4 “Coronavirus illness (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19,” World Well being Group, December 31, 2020,

5 Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud, Niclas Poitiers, and Reinhilde Veugelers, “A world divided: international vaccine commerce and manufacturing,” Bruegel, July 20, 2021,

6 Michael Leigh, “Vaccine diplomacy: tender energy classes from China and Russia?” Bruegel, April 27, 2021,

7 “Manufacturing, politics and propaganda: How Beijing has formed the worldwide COVID immunization drive,” Nikkei Asia, October 12, 2021,

8 “COVID-19 Vaccine Market Dashboard,” United Nations Kids’s Fund, October 2021,

9 Chad P. Bown and Thomas J. Bollyky, “How COVID-19 vaccine provide chains emerged within the midst of a pandemic,” Peterson Worldwide Institute Working paper 21-12, August 2021,

10 “Covid-19 offers tracker: 9.6 billion doses below contract,” Bloomberg, March 9, 2021,

11 Gianna Gayle Amul, Michael Ang, Diya Kraybill, Suan Ee Ong, Joanne Yoong. “Responses to COVID-19 in Southeast Asia: Numerous paths and ongoing challenges,” Asian Financial Coverage Assessment (2021),

12 Seth Berkley. “COVAX: greater than an attractive thought,” The Lancet 398, no. 10298 (2021),

13 In March 2021, the Italian authorities blocked a cargo of roughly 250,000 doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine certain for Australia after the corporate failed to fulfill its contract commitments to the EU for vaccine manufacturing. The European Fee backed the choice of the Italian authorities. See “EU blocks export of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines to Australia.” DW, March 4, 2021,

14 Sanjeev Miglani, “India resumes vaccine exports as home shares construct up – officers.” Reuters, October 13, 2021,

15 Hannah Beech and Muktita Suhartono, “A mass inoculation marketing campaign in Thailand stumbles amid a extreme outbreak,” The New York Instances, June 14, 2021,

16 “Japan to provide hundreds of thousands extra AstraZeneca photographs to Asia,” Nikkei Asia, June 25, 2021,

17 Elizabeth Cheung and Tony Cheung, “Hong Kong to donate 7.5 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to creating international locations,” South China Morning Put up, October 12, 2021,

18 “China COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker,” Bridge Consulting (Beijing), October 11, 2021,

19 “UK begins donating hundreds of thousands of COVID-19 vaccines to international locations abroad together with the Philippines,” UK Authorities, July 28, 2021,

20 Takashi Nakano, Fumi Matsumoto and Jun Suzuki, “From Australia to Thailand, vaccine swap offers assist ease shortages,” Nikkei Asia, October 1, 2021,

21 Paulina Duran, “Australia purchases Pfizer vaccines from Poland as COVID-19 infections spike,” Reuters, August 15, 2021,

22 Alexa Cook dinner, “Jacinda Ardern proclaims second COVID-19 vaccine cope with Denmark, nation set to obtain further 500,000 Pfizer vaccinations,” Information Hub, September 12, 2021,

23 Coleman Beaty, “Japan and vaccine diplomacy,” Middle for Strategic & Worldwide Research, August 9, 2021,

24 Thomas Shattuck, “Vaccines give Taiwan higher hand,” Taipei Instances, July 30, 2021,

25 Sebastian Strangio, “What explains Cambodia’s COVID-19 vaccine distribution success?” The Diplomat, September 8, 2021,

26 Rebecca Forman, Soleil Shah, Patrick Jeurissen, Mark Jit, and Elias Mossialos. “COVID-19 vaccine challenges: What have we discovered thus far and what stays to be achieved?” Well being Coverage (Amsterdam) 125, no. 5 (2021): 553-67.

27 Jeffrey Hutton and Raul Dancel, “Logistics, regulatory bottlenecks loom as South-east Asia embarks on Covid-19 vaccine roll-out,” Strait Instances, February 7, 2021,

28 Cyn-Younger Park, Kijin Kim, Matthias Helble, and Susann Roth, “Preparing for the COVID-19 vaccine rollout,” ADB Coverage Temporary no. 166, February 2021,

29 “Vaccination Nation: Unmasking Cambodia’s Vaccination Success,” Mekong Strategic Companions, August 2021, up/vaccination-nation.

30 Sam Macdonald, “Studying from Cambodia’s COVID-19 response,” Overseas Coverage in Focus, September 22, 2021,; Adrien Chorn and Jonathan Stromseth, “COVID-19 involves Cambodia,” Brookings, Might 19, 2021,

31 “Ten threats to international well being in 2019,” WHO,

32 Alexandria Caple et al. “Interrogating COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy within the Philippines with a nationwide open-access on-line survey.” medRxiv (2021),

33 Kirsten McCaffery et al. “Disparities in COVID-19 associated data, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours by well being literacy.” medRxiv (2020),

34 Fides A Del Castillo. “Altering the COVID-19 vaccine narrative to dispel vaccine hesitancy.” Journal of Public Well being 43, no. 3 (2021),

35 Khairulanwar Zaini and Hoang Thi Ha, “Understanding the selective hesitancy in the direction of Chinese language vaccines in Southeast Asia,” ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute Perspective, September 1, 2021,; Chris Baraniuk. “What will we find out about China’s covid-19 vaccines?” BMJ 373 (2021),

36 Jamie Smyth, “Australia vaccine missteps preserve it within the grip of Covid,” Monetary Instances, August 4, 2021, material/3637a08d-f9cb-436e-9053-5563a29b1edd.

37 Yatun Sastramidjaja and Amirul Adli Rosli, “Monitoring the swelling COVID-19 vaccine chatter on TikTok in Indonesia,” ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute Perspective, June 17, 2021,

38 Akane Okutsu, Cliff Venzon and Erwida Maulia, “Indonesia and Philippines face persistent anti-vax hurdle,” Nikkei Asia, September 14, 2021,

39 Michael Smith and Emma Connors, “Hong Kong and Singapore half methods over borders,” Australia Monetary Assessment, September 3, 2021,; “New Zealand, Australia journey bubble suspended for longer amid Delta outbreaks,” Reuters, September 17, 2021,

40 “Australia companions with Vietnam on vaccine rollout,” Minister for Overseas Affairs, Australia, August 26, 2021,

41 “$9 Billion ADB facility to assist creating member international locations entry and distribute COVID-19 vaccines,” Asia Improvement Financial institution, December 11, 2020,

42 Chang-Chuan Chan and Chi-hsin Sally Chen, “The Taiwan mannequin of COVID-19 management and its international implication,” Taiwan Strategists (2020) no. 6,

43 Pauline Yeung, “Networks for a Resilient Future: An Asian Perspective.” Asia Enterprise Council, August 2021.

44 EK Yeoh et al. “Authorities response measures to COVID-19 – key coverage classes: From experiences of six center/excessive revenue jurisdictions within the western Pacific area within the early stage of the pandemic,” Well being System Influence Subgroup of the COVID-19 Social Science Working Group, World Well being Group, 2021.

45 Kailu Wang et al. “Change of willingness to just accept COVID-19 vaccine and causes of vaccine hesitancy of working individuals at completely different waves of native epidemic in Hong Kong, China: Repeated cross-sectional surveys.” Vaccines 9, no. 1 (2021): 62; Martin CS Wong et al. “Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine primarily based on the well being perception mannequin: A population-based survey in Hong Kong.” Vaccine 39, no. 7 (2021): 1148-1156.

46 Timothy McLaughlin, “The place with surprisingly excessive vaccine hesitancy,” The Atlantic, April 1, 2021,

47 Sammy Heung, “Hong Kong builders dangle one other free flat as vaccination incentive, with only one dose required this time,” South China Morning Put up, July 30, 2021,

48 Bruce Einhorn, Thomas Shum, and Olivia Tam, “Hong Kong restoration imperilled by aged saying no to vaccine,” Bloomberg, August 6, 2021,

49 Hong Kong Vaccination Dashboard, HKSARG,

50 Tony Cheung and Gigi Choy, “Hong Kong chief lobbies Beijing for border reopening, asks for assembly of native, mainland medical specialists,” South China Morning Put up, September 8, 2021,

51 John Energy, “Vaccine hesitancy places Asia’s ‘zero-Covid’ economies like Hong Kong, Australia in herd immunity stalemate,” South China Morning Put up, Might 23, 2021,

52 Heather Humphries, “The position of public communications and engagement in a pandemic,” Ethos no. 22, June 29, 2021,

53 Stephanie Phang and Livia Yap, “Overcoming vaccine hesitancy, Singapore model,” Bloomberg, September 16, 2021,

54 Gan Kim Yong, Lawrence Wong and Ong Ye Kung, “Dwelling usually, with Covid-19: Process power ministers on how Singapore is drawing street map for brand spanking new regular,” Strait Instances, June 24, 2021,

55 Wycliffe Enli Wei, Wei Keat Tan, Alex Richard Cook dinner, Li Yang Hsu, Yik Ying Teo, and Vernon Jian Ming Lee. “Dwelling with COVID-19: The street forward.” Annals of the Academy of Drugs, Singapore 50, no. 8 (2021): 619-628.

56 Clara Chong, “S’pore’s Covid-19 technique not a ‘flip-flop’, helps stop huge variety of deaths: Ong Ye Kung,” Strait Instances, October 18, 2021,

57 Simon J. Evenett, Bernard Hoekman, Nadia Rocha, and Michele Ruta. “The Covid-19 vaccine manufacturing membership: will worth chains mood nationalism?” Coverage Analysis Working Paper no. 9565 (2021). World Financial institution, Washington, DC., with/10986/35244.

58 Wanyuan Music, “Covid-19 vaccines: Has China made greater than different international locations mixed?” BBC, October 10, 2021, Anna Nishino, “China’s international vaccine gambit: Manufacturing, politics, and propaganda,” Nikkei Asia, October 12, 2021,

59 As an illustration, China’s COVID-19 diplomacy that includes the supply of medical assist and vaccines has been topic to dialogue; see ChinaPower Workforce, “Is China’s Covid-19 Diplomacy Succeeding?” Middle for Strategic & Worldwide Research, up to date September 30, 2021,

60 “COVID-19: Make it the Final Pandemic,” Impartial Panel for Pandemic Preparedness & Response, Might 2021,; Gordon Brown and Daniel Susskind. “Worldwide cooperation through the COVID-19 pandemic.” Oxford Assessment of Financial Coverage 36, no. Supplement_1 (2020): S64-S76; Marc-Alain Widdowson, “The unfair distribution of vaccines: An embarrassing Deja-vu,” Institute of Tropical Drugs, January 25, 2021,

61 Chad P. Bown and Thomas J. Bollyky, “How COVID-19 vaccine provide chains emerged within the midst of a pandemic,” Peterson Worldwide Institute Working paper 21-12, August 2021,; “COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing Agreements,” International Well being Centre, Graduate Institute Geneva, 2021,

62 “Janssen visits GC Pharma plant to spark a consignment hypothesis,” Pulse Information Korea, September 29, 2021,

63 “Japanese drugmaker begins AstraZeneca vaccine manufacturing,” The Japan Instances, March 12, 2021,; “Japan to buy 150 mln doses of Takeda-produced Novavax vaccines – drugmaker,” Reuters, September 7, 2021,

64 Ludwig Burger and Caroline Copley, “BioNTech to construct mRNA vaccine manufacturing website in Singapore,” Reuters, Might 10, 2021,

65 Marimi Kishimoto, “Thai king-owned biotech begins manufacturing of AstraZeneca vaccine,” Nikkei Asia, June 4, 2021,

66 Primus Dorimulu, Maria Fatima Bona, “Indonesia administers Sinovac vaccine manufactured by Bio Farma,” Jakarta Globe, February 19, 2021,; Tom Allard and Kate Lamb, “Indonesia in talks with WHO to develop into international vaccine hub: minister,” Reuters, September 16, 2021,

67 “Taiwan says AstraZeneca COVID shot manufacturing talks fell by way of,” Reuters, June 10, 2021,

68 Makoto Kosaka et al. “Delayed COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Japan.” The Lancet 397, no. 10292 (2021),

69 Stephen Croucher, Doug Ashwell and Jo Cullinane, “New Zealand has ramped up vaccination charges, however too many individuals stay involved about vaccine security,” The Dialog, September 20, 2021,

70 The WHO’s interim lists of Nationwide Regulatory Authority analysis outcomes will be discovered at; See “Listing of Nationwide Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) working at maturity degree 3 (ML3) and maturity degree 4 (ML4) (as benchmarked towards WHO International Benchmarking Instrument (GBT),” and “Listing of vaccine producing international locations with practical NRAs,”

71 Stephanie Nolen, “Right here’s why creating international locations could make mRNA vaccines,” The New York Instances, October 22, 2021,

72 The detailed clarification on sources of COVID-19 dataset maintained by Our World in Knowledge will be discovered at

73 Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Cameron Appel, Charlie Giattino, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Joe Hasell, Bobbie Macdonald, Diana Beltekian and Max Roser, “Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19),”, 2020,

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